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Бюллетень Почвенного института имени В.В. Докучаева

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К вопросу об изучении пылевидных образований в городских экосистемах

https://doi.org/10.19047/0136-1694-2020-104-241-269

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Аннотация

По данным Всемирной организации охраны здоровья, более 80% жителей городов подвергаются риску из-за недостаточного качества атмосферного воздуха. Загрязнение атмосферного воздуха является причиной приблизительно 4.2 миллиона смертей в год. Цель работы -дать обзор научных статей, касающихся запыленности природных средгорода. Были проанализированы статьи зарубежных и российских исследователей - дано определение городской дорожной пыли, рассмотрены главные техногенные и природные источники генерации пылевых частиц в городе, физические и химические свойства дорожной пыли, их зависимости от климата, типа дорог и архитектуры города, влияние процессов фотолиза на физико-химические показатели мелкодисперсных частиц. Особое внимание уделено негативному влиянию частиц пыли PM2.5 и PM10 на здоровье человека и окружающую среду. Рассмотрен вопрос отсутствия в российской научной практике официально признанной методологии пробоотбора осевшей пыли при обновлении нормативной документации по методике отбора мелкодисперсных частиц, взвешенных в воздухе. Дана рекомендация по созданию нормативной базы, регулирующей процедуры пробоотбора и анализа дорожной пыли, являющейся геоиндикатором состояния окружающей среды, что подтверждается многочисленными выводами как зарубежных, так и некоторых отечественных исследователей.

Об авторах

Д. Т. Укарханова
Тюменский государственный университет
Россия

Аспирант второго года обучения, кафедра Геоэкологии и природопользования, ТюмГУ.

625003, Тюмень ул. Володарского, 6



Д. В. Московченко
Тюменский государственный университет; Тюменский научный центр СО РАН
Россия

625003, Тюмень ул. Володарского, 6; 625026, Тюмень, ул. Малыгина, 86



А. А. Юртаев
Тюменский государственный университет
Россия

625003, Тюмень ул. Володарского, 6



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Для цитирования:


Укарханова Д.Т., Московченко Д.В., Юртаев А.А. К вопросу об изучении пылевидных образований в городских экосистемах. Бюллетень Почвенного института имени В.В. Докучаева. 2020;(104):241-269. https://doi.org/10.19047/0136-1694-2020-104-241-269

For citation:


Ukarkhanova D.T., Moskovchenko D.V., Yurtaev A.A. On the question of studyng dust-like formations in urban ecosystems. Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin. 2020;(104):241-269. https://doi.org/10.19047/0136-1694-2020-104-241-269

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